Getting music from a CD (that you own, of course) to your favourite media player, such as Amarok, isn't always a clear process under KDE.
Amarok itself doesn't have the facility to rip CDs, as with many other media players, so using an external program is sometimes the only option. KAudioCreator is one such ripping program.
To install, you should be able to search for it in your package manager. While you're there, you might also want to snag flac, libvorbis and/or lame for encoding into FLAC, Ogg Vorbis and MP3 respectively.
Pop in an audio disc, and load up KAudioCreator.
If this is the first time, you've used the program, you'll need to first head into the configuration and set up an encoder. You'll be reminded of this through a dialogue box.
Go to Settings > Configure KAudioCreator.
Under the Encoder tab, you'll want to pick which format you want your CD extracted to (make sure you've installed the right packages for your chosen encoder). Pick the one you want.
While you're here, you might want to also choose the output folder for ripped tracks, under Encoded File Location. I've chosen to set a prefix of ~/Music.
Now you can get started ripping. The interface is a little... erm, unique, and takes some getting used to.
To simply rip all the tracks on the disc, choose Select All Tracks at the bottom of the interface, and then click the Gear icon in the toolbar to get started. Then check out the Jobs tab to watch the status of the rip and encode.
To rip only selected tracks, instead of choosing Select All Tracks, click each track individually to place a tick mark next to its name.
That's it! Once the rip is complete, you'll have a set of files.